Berlin – Revolution and reaction

After a year 1815 Berlin has enjoyed peace and stability for over thirty years, but he was not bypassed by revolutionary moods, which took over Europe in 1848 year. Influenced by the events in France and the writings of Karl Marx (who lived here in the years 1837-1841) Berliners demanded greater influence over their own affairs. Król Fryderyk Wilhelm IV (1795-1861) refused. 18 March, residents gathered in front of the palace, to make your demands. Two soldiers from the crowd dispersing the troops accidentally fired twice and the demonstration turned into a revolution. Barricades were erected and a 14-hour battle flared up between the insurgents and the loyalist armies. According to eyewitness accounts, both the rich and the poor joined the rebellion. 183 Berliners and 18 soldiers were killed in the fighting.

Terrified by the anger of his subjects, Frederick William IV ordered the withdrawal of troops to Spandau, leaving Berlin in the hands of revolutionaries, who, however, failed to take advantage of the situation. A parliament and a civic militia were established, but instead of attacking Spandau or taking other measures to consolidate the revolution, the new congregation took up the issue of protecting the royal palace from vandalism. No attempt was made to proclaim a republic or seize public buildings, and this extremely peaceful revolution was doomed to failure.

21 March the king appeared in public wearing the black, red and gold symbol of the revolution. Having failed to suppress it, he offered to join her, along with most of its ministers and princes. The king gave a speech at the university, not promising too much, but he dwelt on the idea of ​​German unity, which made a great impression on the gathered liberals. Order was fully restored; in October, the Prussian army under General Wrangl entered Berlin and forced the dissolution of parliament. The Berliners either gave up the fight, or have gone into exile with millions of other Germans.

There has been a period of suppression of the revolution. Fryderyk stopped wearing the tricolor and started persecuting the liberals, and the roller skates then lost his mind. His brother, Prince William - who led the loyalist armies to the barricades - became regent, and then King Otto von Bismarck was made chancellor (1862) despite widespread hatred. which he awakened among the Berliners.

In the meantime, Berlin grew rapidly, turning into cosmopolitan, a modern industrial city A free press and a liberal past put pressure on a parliament without influence, Reichstag. much to the annoyance of Bismarck and the king (who would soon be proclaimed emperor or Kaiser) However, Bismarck became a national hero after the overwhelming victory of Prussia over Austria at the Battle of Konigratz (1866), which opened the way for Prussia to unify - and dominate - Germany. Although elsewhere liberalism has disappeared under the influence of militarist nationalism. Berliners continued to elect liberal deputies to the Reichstag, which after the reunification of Germany in 1871 year became the parliament for the whole country. Nevertheless, Berlin remained an unpredictable city. It was here that three attempts were made to assassinate Emperor William I.; as a result of the last, well under the linden trees (1878) thirty shrapnel shrapnel remained in William's body. While the Kaiser was recovering, Bismarck used the coup as an excuse to purge the socialists, he closed their writings and persecuted trade unionists. The development of trade unions was a direct result of relentless urbanization. Between 1890 a 1900 in the year the population of Berlin doubled, having reached 2.000.000 and in working-class districts such as Wedding, thousands of tenement houses have grown up. The working class supported the Social Democratic Party (SPD), whose deputies were the main force of the opposition in the Reichstag.

W 1890 year Emperor Wilhelm II "threw Pilot overboard” (Bismarck), but the country remained largely militaristic and authoritarian. In Berlin, however, rebellious liberalism persisted, and the city gradually gained the features of a modern capital. This traditional trade and diplomatic center boasted electric trams, underground railway and other technical innovations of the era.